PANDA : 5 modules

The PANDA Analytic platform allows the elemental analysis in concentration of a large number of chemical species found in the ice and in the air bubbles trapped in it. Some of the instruments also allow measurement of the isotopic compositions of these species, and access to an additional level of information contained in the glacial archive.

PANDA’s analytical capabilities are divided into 5 modules, physically located at the IGE or the LSCE :

  • The chemistry module, based at the IGE
  • The Aerosol & Soluble Chemical Species Isotopes Module (NO3-, NH4+, SO42-, based at the IGE
  • The gas module (gas concentration in trapped air bubbles), based at the IGE
  • The air isotope module ( N2, O2, Ar, Kr, Xe), based at the LSCE
  • The water isotope module, mainly based at the LSCE

The chemistry module

The Chemistry module includes a concentration measurement by colorimetry, an off-line chromatography, and an auto-sampler associated with the CFA, for discrete analysis in ion chromatography.

It allows the analysis of a large number of tracers commonly measured in ice cores (anions, cations, black carbon, dust, trace metals). These elements are used in the study of global climate, anthropogenic emissions, atmospheric transport and volcanism.

Read more

The gas module

The Gas module includes 2 methods :

  • Continuous flow measurements, associated with CFA, for methane, carbon monoxide and nitrous oxide.
  • Discrete measurements of methane and carbon dioxide, which have historically provided the concentration profiles of the EPICA core over the last 800,000 years.
Read more

The water isotope module

The water isotope module allows measurements
 Continuous by laser spectrometry (Picarro) on the CFA line of the LSCE or IGE
 Discrete by laser or mass spectrometry

Read more

The air isotope module

The gaz isotopy module allows discrets measurments by mass spectrometry of oxygen isotopes (δ18O, δ17O), nitrogen (δ15N), argon (36/38/40), krypton (82/84/86), xenon (129-132) and the ratio O2/N2. An extraction line is specially dedicated to the degassing of large quantities of ice (several kilos) for 81Kr measurements (collaboration with the University of Heifei for ATTA measurements).

Read more